I noticed that licking of her lips, the directing
of her glance, her general body movements. (1959)
Selected Papers, 1980, vol. 1, p. 222
You meet, you observe your patient – get acquainted
with them. To recognize the little things, the little
bit of behavior that they’re manifested.
ASCH, 1980 Taped Lecture, 7/16/65
The Wisdom of Milton H. Erickson,
1. Tongue Movements or Tongue Reactions (TR)
For several years we have been working to find some new involuntary physiological reactions so that a new technique could be built on this basis. It seems natural that if a technique is based on some physiological reactions it is to provide a strong physiological shift. So we kept our eyes on different micro fragments of human behavior, noticed special reactions and picked some of them. In this paper we are introducing one of them.
It is both psychological and physiological. People usually don’t notice it at all. It can be very visible or barely noticeable. It is a tongue movement: some people lick their lips while talking, some people make sort of “snake-tongue” movements putting their tongues out of the lips, some people just move lips, tongue and jaws without opening their mouth. It looks as if people were testing some taste but those reactions are noticed when people are involved in talking so it’s not the taste reaction. Sometimes, but not often, people swallow along with those moments.
1.1. Individual diversity of TR
Perhaps all of human beings demonstrate tongue reactions in some sort of situations. The intensity and individual meaning can be most different. Some people demonstrate visible, intense and frequent TR and some people demonstrate barely noticeable and rare TR. The first impression is that the frequent and visible TR are most typical for energetic and optimistic people or for people in positive emotional state. And barely noticeable TR are typical for apathetic and depressed people or for people in negative states of mind. However, that correlation isn’t that simple, individual characteristics may be absolutely unique. For example, some energetic people demonstrate very little TR, maybe, that is when they are introverts rather than extroverts. It requires a special research to describe this correlation. As for us, we didn’t do any special researches concerning that point. We were interested particularly in the ways of using TR in therapy.
1.2. What may this reaction mean?
1. In 9 of 10 cases TR isn’t connected to any external taste that could be checked. When sometimes we stopped and asked people if they are aware of any internal or external taste at the moment of TR, they constantly said “no”.
2. In NLP they describe cognitive types of people depending on the dominating sensory systems: visual, auditory, kinesthetic, or olfactory. If olfactory modality is dominating that means that the person checks taste metaphorically. This fact can be demonstrated by the use of figurative phrases like: “in poor taste”, leave a bad taste”, “get a taste of”, “acquire a taste for smth”, “no account for taste”, etc. The case of dominating olfactory modality is rather rare. When people are asked about internal taste right after such phrases they don’t say anything particularly and don’t demonstrate any indications of a real taste checking. So our work with TR is not connected to anything done in NLP on such points.
1.3. What is TR? What is its origin?
1. Our hypothesis is that adult person’s TR is an important part of a childish cognition process that was developed at the first stage of cognition. It is developed during childhood when a several months old baby is getting to know the world around and it tries everything by licking and touching things with its lips and tongue. Baby’s licking is not a search for eatable things (there are not many of those things around it) but this is a very important stage of cognition and checking the objects that are found by hands.
In other words, lips and tongue are very important at the first stage of the cognition process. That’s why adults never mention any taste checking when they are asked about their TR – they can’t have any taste memories.
2. In scientific literature (I. A. Zambrzytski Nutritional Center of the Brain, Moscow, Meditsina, 1989) it is pointed out that there is a PRO – regio preoptica hypo thalami in brain and it is an important part of hypo thalami. When dog’s PRO is activated in its head the dog begins to anticipate something pleasant, it starts licking and looking for something. It is important for our study that this anticipation is for something pleasant and not necessarily eatable. The other name for PRO is “a hypothalamic eye”. According to I. A. Zambrzytski , PRO plays an important part in the process of integration of (1) the main stimuli of the actual surrounding including food but also many other types of stimuli, (2) past experience, (3) situational reflexes and processes that are connected with effects or processes associated with frontal brain. In I. A. Zambrzytski’s work it is also pointed out that PRO plays the main part in the processes of food reward for some behavior (*1).
So, in adult human behavior TR simultaneously demonstrates some mental referent process that derives from the infantile searching reaction in a deep unconscious level. And also it can function as effectively as a real food reward (operant conditioning) (*2).
1.4. TR therapeutic meaning
First of all, TR can be used as a marker. It is an interesting task to systematize the words and phrases that are said just before TR and so are marked by it. The universal meaning of this marker is: “This word that I’ve just said means something deeply important for me. It is important for me almost at childish level”. So it is understood that this type of marker comes from the very depth of unconsciousness.
This marker can’t be decoded in a traditional way namely by summarizing all the meanings (words) that are marked. Here we have more ways for understanding. It is a unique particularity of the TR-marker that even in a very short phrase it can additionally mark and point different meanings. For example, in a short phrase like: “I can do X” the TR marker (TRM) can reveal the following meaning:
“I – TRM – do X” – right after “I” or the name TRM indicates egocentric type of statement;
“I do – TRM – X” – right after the word that means the action TRM indicates and emphasizes the action and the possibility of the action;
“I do X – TRM” – at the end of the statement TRM indicates the whole process.
Among all those variants the third one is most valuable, it indicates that the person is positively involved in the action. It is especially valuable because it is totally unconscious marker.
2. TR therapeutic use
2.1. Establishing feedback with the use of TR. Therapeutic operant conditioning with the use of TR as a self-reward.
While communicating with a subject it is not difficult to produce some barely noticeable signal every time right at the moment when the subject’s TR is seen (heard). Rather soon there will be established a communicative feedback on unconscious level and it will be easy to test: if and when the therapist sends the signal, the subject demonstrates his / her TR. So the subject can demonstrate TR according to his / her internal processes as well as after the therapist’s signal. When the feedback is established the therapist can use TR and it will be a reward for the subject’s unconsciousness that helps to change the subject’s behavior using the rules of operant learning. This kind of operant learning with the use of the subject’s own physiological reaction is specifically elegant and powerful. Practically, it is absolutely unavailable for the subject’s consciousness to interrupt it. We have experimented with this kind of operant learning when dealing with emotional, behavioral and even mental problems.
Case 1 is an example of that.
Before describing the cases we would like to point out that all of those cases were not purely therapeutic and contained a great deal of experimental researching work. When used in regular therapy the TR is usually only one of a set of tools arranged according to the therapeutic situation and goals.
Patient U., 22 years old, professional chess player, wanted to become a grand master. He complained that sometimes he had had failures without any reasons. His abilities were very unstable. His trainer told him that the reason of his failures was psychological and he had to get psychotherapy. U. didn’t want to go through any traditional psychotherapy.
According to his wishes the therapist was talking with him about different successful and unsuccessful games. For many long hours U. and the therapist discussed U.’s successful and unsuccessful actions, and the same of different famous chess players.
At the first stage of therapy there was the only technique used as a therapeutic interaction: rapport, of course, and a special signal associated with U.’s TR. The therapist used this signal to point out U.’s positive and effective thoughts about good combinations that he could remember from his own and other great chess players’ games.
At the second stage the therapist worked to find out the mental processes preceded the successful moves during U.’s and the other famous chess players games, to U.’s mind. Using the signal for TR therapist succeeded to associate those mental processes with the patient’s TR. In addition, the therapist asked the patient to think over the successful moves very carefully and this thinking moments were also pointed by U.’s TR. This process of talking and associating the positive mental states and the patient’s TR was continued until the patient started to demonstrate TR spontaneously at right (positive) moments without the therapist’s signal. By this time the therapist decreased the number of the signals and the patient began to demonstrate his own TR when he played successfully and when he thought or talked about successful moves and positive emotional and mental state.
This way the patient’s problem was resolved. U. pointed out that he had had less and less of failures and that it’s not a problem anymore. In addition, his talent was developing further even though he didn’t believe that was possible. At present time, he has plans to become an international grand master.
There were many other nuances but we pointed the most important of them. It is possible to use the same technique for resolving physiological, emotional and behavioral problems. Again we would like to point out that according to our experience this technique doesn’t lead to magic quick results. It requires time and many sessions as well. It takes time to form an effective unconscious automatic system of patient’s self-rewarding and then it takes time for this system to make positive changes. This is especially true in cases of chronicle illnesses and severe emotional problems. The advantages of that technique are mostly noticeable if a patient has negative attitude toward hypnosis and is not very enthusiastic about therapy and when they like to talk. This is highly important because people demonstrate more TR when they are speaking.
2.2. Other ways of TR use. Attaching meanings to TR.
We may attach any positive meaning to TR making it a sign of secondary language (Tkachev, 1999). In result the patient’s unconscious mind will perceive TR as a signal (a secondary word) of some meaning. This way a natural TR will serve as sort of posthypnotic suggestion because every time when the patient will make TR he / she will automatically activate this positive meaning which will be a positive self-suggestion.
This process is similar to what Dr. Erickson had demonstrated in his work with Monde, (Erickson, 1979) he attached the meaning to Monde’s opening her eyes: every time when she was opening her eyes after keeping them closed she felt release from some negative experience.
Here is another case that can be described as an example of attaching the meaning to TR.
Patient L., 31 years old, had multiple problems because of her impulsive behavior. While talking, she demonstrated very noticeable TR, she even put her tongue out. When she was talking about her problems and actions, her TR marked the action: “I do – TRM – X”, which corresponded to the cognitive model of her problem: she became involved in some activity without considering its consequences. When she did TR after the verb of action her TR functioned as a self-reward and thus stimulated the whole process of impulsive behavior.
At the first session a stable feedback was established so when the therapist demonstrated his special signal she responded with her TR.
At the second session the therapist was discussing her problems with her and every time when she had spontaneous TR he interrupted (pattern interruption) her and asked to repeat the last words. This way the meaning “repeat” was attached to the patient’s TR (secondary word).
At the next session when L. demonstrated TR the therapist gave the signal and asked to repeat the words with some other meaning.
Then the therapist continued to maintain this association until there was built a stable regularity: every time after the therapist’s signal L. stopped, demonstrated her TR and repeated the last words with different meaning. That was the model of thinking over and considering different aspects of her future actions.
At the fifth session a light trance was induced and the metaphors were told about somebody who was thinking of doing something and considered all the circumstances and consequences and then acted or didn’t. In those metaphors the key words were pointed by the signal, which reinforced the suggestion. And every time the therapist’s signal was used as an associational suggestion as if the signal meant: “Think about your actions, consider the results and reward yourself for that thinking and also think about your past actions”.
Some time past and L.’s behavior had become more stable and goal directed.
We don’t know how long this effect stayed after it was set. At present, she phones to tell a few words. When she talks she demonstrates her TR at the same place as it was during the therapy, i.e. after the words of considering the results of her actions.
In this case the therapist used the technique of associating the patient’s TR and the meaning “consider what you are going to do”. Then TR was moved to a right place where it served as a self-reward for such considering.
2.3. Forming a secondary meaning: “Yes-set”
A patient A., 27 years old, married and pregnant at the time of therapy. A.’s problems were caused by her life situation. Her husband was going to move to another place, get a stable position and then take her there. This supposed to take quite a long time and she didn’t feel emotionally involved in this plan. She didn’t feel certain about their relationship though there were no reasons for such uncertainty. In order to participate in the plan actively and positively and to give birth to their child she needed to feel sure that their marriage will stay stable and that she will cope with all the problems.
During the first meetings with A. every time when she demonstrated well-formed TR the therapist interrupted her and said “yes” in an emphasized manner, so all the said words turned to sound affirmatively. When A. demonstrated small TR the therapist said “no” so all the said words turned to sound with negation. The therapist continued to make those associations until A. herself started to demonstrate very noticeable TR when saying something affirmatively and a very small ones when saying something with negation.
That was the establishment of secondary words “general yes” and “general no” (they are secondary because not words but nonverbal signals became the bearers of the meanings).
At the second session the therapist checked the association of TR and the meanings “yes” and “no” and then conducted 6-step reframing. He asked the patient’s unconscious mind to find new ways of becoming certain about her future. All the objections were utilized.
The 6-step reframing is the procedure where unconscious mind gets instructed about some steps that are to be done and when done it makes the signal “yes” and if there are some objections it makes the signal “no” and the objections are to be resolved. In a medium trance A. demonstrated strong TR, which was “yes” response. Very soon after the session A. reported that her problem was resolved and that she felt positively involved in the plan. Her husband left, she gave birth to her baby without any medical problems.
There was one additional problem shortly after the described therapy. At some moment when she knew her husband had some problems at the new place she got problems with lactation. A. asked the therapist if it were possible to ask her unconscious mind to produce more milk for the baby. During a short visit the therapist checked if her unconscious mind remembers the reactions she demonstrated during the first trance and it showed readiness to communicate but the therapist didn’t induce trance. When she demonstrated TR at the very beginning the therapist repeated the ritual of the first session and asked her unconsciousness to find new ways of becoming sure in positive future despite all the difficulties. He asked her unconsciousness to find such a feeling of certainty that would increase her lactation and give a signal “yes” when this would be done. After that procedure the therapist kept talking with A. The therapist waited for the time of usual breast-feeding which supposed to be approximately 40 minutes after. At proper time A. told that she had got milk and that was confirmed with her TR. After that session she continued to breast-feed her baby until it was more than one year old.
There can be an objection that the same result could be obtained with the use of some other techniques. We certainly agree with that. But we would like to point out that it is rather difficult task to compare techniques because the result always depends on the initial belief that the therapist has about the effectiveness of one technique or another. If we believe in the effectiveness of “TR” technique it certainly will be the most effective in our work. Skeptics will probably have the opposite results. And that is true with all the techniques. That is why methodically it is probably more correct to focus on some other aspects.
In the cases 1, 2 and 3 there are described the therapeutic situations where the therapist was particularly focused on “TR” techniques consciously. But it is possible and preferable if that technique were automatic and done without therapist’s conscious attention. If this technique is automatic it can be combined with any number of other techniques.
According to our deep understanding, the core of Ericksonian approaches is the multileveled combination of many different coordinated techniques. If that is true then the main question is not which technique is more effective. The right question is, if there are any techniques that can get therapeutic result being used separately. The second question is, how such a technique can be combined with other techniques in multi level structure. The more techniques we can combine in a united structure the more effective will be the whole therapeutic process. And the third right question will be about the right order in which we should master one technique after the other combining them in one effective structure.
2.4. The use of TR for clarifying confusing situations
We also use the procedure of building the association between therapist’s signal and patient’s TR when the patient has not only a severe problem but also a lot of confusing information collected around the problem. That information needs to be analyzed.
In such cases we conduct initial interview, ask the patient rather direct questions about the problem and we associate all the patient’s TR with some barely noticeable nonverbal signal. When this association is built we ask some new questions about deeper roots of a problem and after each question we give a signal for TR. This goes on and on and on. This way the patient begins to answer with appropriate associations and the confusing complex of negative feelings, physiology, past events and present interpretations appears in a line, become well structured and clear. It is much easier to get patient’s insights with this technique. This was the main approach to a very confusing case of the patient I.
Patient I., 28 years old, married, has a 4 years old child. Her story began when her husband, a dentist, decided to set his office in their apartment. That was very good business decision (they were not wealthy) but she started to swoon at home without any visible reasons. Her explanation was that she couldn’t stand medical smells. But that never happened to her before. She described that at some moments she felt asphyxia, her heart didn’t work right, and she couldn’t breathe, so she could faint any time. Some time later she started to feel smells in different places other than their apartment and those smells caused her the same terrible problems. Her husband stopped working in his office, they closed it but it didn’t help. This reaction could happen even without any real smells. She also had a strong phobic reaction that it could happen again and that she may die of it.
When she came to us she had been suffering this for two years. During that time she had visited different specialists, took medications, but nothing could help her. She was on psychoanalysis, hypnotherapy and some sort of physical treatment. Some of those specialists worked with her fear but they bumped into her real physiological chock. Some of them tried to treat her physiological problem as an allergic response but her terrible fear impeded their efforts. All she told about all this treatment that it “was not right”.
At our first session, beginning from her first words the therapist was associating her TR and the special nonverbal signal. We continued to ask her gently what she could say about the reasons of that problem and every question was finished with the signal for her TR. The patient told that there are many reasons that can be mentioned and used effectively but everything should be done “in a right order”. That communication was conducted according to her wishes and associations began to come to her mind.
That is very typical for TR technique that the patients keeps very stable positive attitude toward therapy and starts to bring memories-associations that are closely connected to the problem. All those associations are relevant and useful for therapy. It is also important that those memories being very dramatic didn’t chock her. She was calm and in a rather positive emotional state and her physiological reactions were controlled. The line of memories looked like a smooth insight.
The first memory that came to her mind was of the time when her husband working in a dentist clinic had sort of a short romantic relationship with one of women in the clinic. This caused I. a hard time. That was before her smell-problems.
We can comment that since that time the medical uniform had become a symbol of betrayal, when she saw it at home it was as if something threatened her marriage right at their home.
Her second memory was about her cousin. She was older than I. and they were very close friends. When I. was about 8 her cousin died because of severe inflammation on her face. Parents took her to a hospital; in fact they visited several hospitals but none of medical doctors helped her. Several hours later she died at home.
This unconscious memory that she hadn’t think about for years was also connected to her present problem. She herself guessed that now when a doctor “who also works with some part of a faces” (a dentist) is in her home something terrible can happen to her or her child. By the way, she also guessed that her husband’s profession is quite symbolical for her. She had chosen this man because unconsciously she wanted to have a medical person in her life.
The third memory was about the cousin’s funeral: there were many people and a lot of flowers. There were so many flowers that some of them were kept in a white bathroom. I. remembered the strong smell of all those flowers and she had a headache and she couldn’t breath.
At present her husband’s office was white and there were strong smells, and again this unconscious association had led her to an unconscious conclusion that something so terrible as death could happen at her home. I. worried very much about her husband’s patients but they all felt alright so she herself began to suffer.
The fourth association was from her early childhood. When she was approximately 4 her mother was pregnant and I. expected to have a brother or sister. Her father took her mother to a hospital for delivery. But her mother came back home alone, and nobody explained that to the girl. I. remembered that being home she and her friend were looking for the baby in the appartment and for some reason they decided that the baby was like a doll hidden somewhere. I. also remembered that she had a strange guess that the baby is hidden in the bathroom.
All the unconscious experiences got focused when I. and her husband decided to get the second child. That was at the same time when he started to see patients at his home office.
All these discoveries took three sessions altogether, each lasted for about an hour. When I. realized all those connections she felt herself much better already. She clarified her relationship with husband concerning his past passion. But she still had a strong fear of the dentist office at home and still couldn’t stand the strong smells.
In a medium trance she was instructed to breathe even and calmly even in the cases when her nose felt some unpleasant smells. She had got a straightforward task to train herself deliberately by smelling different strong-smelling things. She succeeded. Then there was a task to open the office that was closed for a long time and help her husband to prepare it for the work. She succeeded with that, too.
The whole therapy took about 10 sessions and lasted for a month and a half. By the end she had no fear of smells or medical offices, and she had no unpleasant physiological reactions.
In many similar cases TR can be used for arranging the patient’s content in a right order, which is important even if the patient doesn’t ask about that. The result of the described procedure is always the same: the patient recalls and reveals some very appropriate associational line that leads to the very initial reasons. Patients go through recalling calmly and even this recalling gives them some relief and helps to get good therapeutic results. Sometimes at that stage patients spontaneously go to a light trance and therapist can deepen it.
Almost always we use this technique when dealing with drug abusers because it’s difficult to find out what was the initial problem: was it an emotional problem that caused the drug abusing or the emotional problems came next. We use it when working with drug abusers who had been taking drugs for a long time. Usually the reasons that support their thirst are all mixed and confusing. TR helps to separate them and pick up the most important points. So those associational lines are always very clear and powerful. Knowing that therapist can influence the patient’s behavior and resolve the core problems.
In addition the use of TR helps to find new information and leads not to deep past and neurotic complexes but to the very special initial points.
Patient K., 23 years old, ex-drug abuser, had been taking drugs for a long time, including one year of heroin up to three times a day. The patient went through an intensive course of medications and psychotherapy. By the time he came to us he hadn’t taken drugs for two months. He succeeded to control his life without drugs but sometimes (rarely) he experienced a very short unbearable impulsive thirst for drugs.
Thorough interview with the use of TR didn’t lead to his past either anywhere else, probably because his psychotherapist worked very well. We continued asking him questions and making the signal for TR. And all of a sudden K. spontaneously went to a trance and told the stimuli of this short thirst. He told that for some very short moment he got a distortion of perception which then he forgotten immediately. For example, he could hold a cup of coffee and for one short moment he could see his coffee as if it was a prepared drug. K. called these local distortions of perception “bits of drug past”. Those distortions were utilized and removed successfully.
And it was not once that we found such “bits of drug past” and often it was some special distortion of perception. If not found, it provoked drug abusing even after a gigh professional treatment. Those “bits” are not found without a special search and the techniques with the use of TR help to discover them. In the case 6 we have described the most intricate distortion of perception that provoked drug abusing after a regular treatment.
Patient D., 18 years old. He told about his distortion of perception. He used to smell heroin through a small tube made of a ten ruble banknote so when he saw the banknote or some white powder he had a hallucination of a ten ruble tube near his nose and the tube was becoming bigger and bigger and millions of crystals rushed to him through this tube. He was forgetting this hallucination immediately but it was a very strong hook and it caused him a strong impulse to smell the drug.
It was very interesting for us to discover such a strange image so we used the signal for TR and that helped D. to recollect all the associational line. He was able to recall that Russian ten rubles bank note is green as the American money and that he watched an American movie where a character smelled drug through a ten-dollar bill. On the screen the ten dollar tube became bigger and bigger and millions of crystals rushed to him through this tube. The patient assured us that he saw this movie on TV many years ago, before he started to take drugs. Later this suppressed memory led him to his own distortions of perception, similar to momentary hallucination that provoked his drug abusing.
We have described those examples in order to attract attention to such an interesting physiological reaction that we have called a tongue reaction (TR). We would like to invite professionals to investigate this reaction and its use in therapy of severe case with physiological problems, chronicle diseases, immune problems, etc. These cases were collected earlier when we could control this part of therapy at least partly consciously. Some time passed since the first author started to experiment with this reaction so now he always makes a signal to attach to TR from the first minutes of therapy. He notices that he makes this attachment automatically. Sometimes the author notices that he makes the signal for TR even before the patient’s TR are demonstrated and the patient responses with his / her TR. This confuses the author because he doesn’t notice consciously the process of associating this signal with a patient’s TR.
The other question that puzzles the author, whether the process of generalization took place and how his unconscious mind can rapidly “evoke” TR as a communicational response. The author suggests that if that is true it is similar to what Dr. Erickson told about his work: “I know what I am doing but I don’t know everything that I am doing”. Now there should be done a special research of how the author creates the association between his signal and a patient’s TR so quickly, by using unconsciously some other process than it was at the beginning. It is especially important for estimating the therapeutic value of using TR with severe disorders. Case 7 is an example of spontaneous use of a signal for TR, which seemed to appear by itself.
Recently the author presented at a seminar and at some moment when he saw that one of participants was sitting motionlessly with his hand stretched cataleptically, and he was trembling. Even his glance was stopped. The other participants were puzzled and said: “We’ve got a problem”. The author interrupted the situation and came to the man. He sat to the right of the man, clasped him with his left hand and took the man’s right wrist very firmly in his right hand. The author felt that the man was trembling and shook impulsively. In a mechanical way the author concentrated the trembling in his right hand so that the man’s hand started to shake rhythmically with a big amplitude. According to this rhythm the author started to tell emphatically: “Relax. Relax…” It didn’t take a long time to tell this instruction ten times and the author to his own surprise heard his own signal for TR. In response the man swallowed and his body relaxed. He felt better.
Then the author proceeded the same way, the man came to a normal state and went home. The seminar participants explained that the man had two neurosurgeries because of tumors of his left-brain and that this accident wasn’t unusual. But before it took him more time to come to a normal state.
The author remembered very well that he didn’t talk to the man before the seminar and so he couldn’t set the association of his own communicative signal and the man’s TR. The man was sitting silently from the very beginning of the meeting and didn’t demonstrate any TR so the author even thought that he is the one who has no TR.
Here comes the question, if the association between the author’s signal and the man’s TR was set – then how it happened. This question can be answered only by a special research.
In addition, the author noticed that the professionals who master the TR technique learning them from the author get to the level of generalized automatic skill much faster then the author did.
In this article we have described the research that was made not in laboratory but in therapeutic and life situation. Some reasons made us to accomplish it:
(1) Dr. Erickson’ suggestion: “I think it is tremendously important that you observe everything that’s possible”. Now it is even surprising why people are not aware of TR – such a noticeable reaction.
(2) There is much mentioning of taste estimation in Dr. Erickson’s works. He often used eating processes in his metaphors and in the technique of age regression.
(3) It seems to us that the depth of content in Dr. Erickson’s metaphors is underestimated because they are so literal. And the literalness contains the depth. For example, there is a metaphor about the horse that came to Ericksons’ farm and then went to her own place. Erickson didn’t let it to stay and eat grass. In this metaphor it seems to be an important nuance that the horse was led by something that is connected to its mouth.
1. A. Tkachev, Secondary Languages in Psychotherapy and Life. Perspectives of the use in education, In: Ecology of Human beings, vol. 2, “The health of Nation: Education and Spirituality. The International Congress of UNESCO. New Technologies of Science and Education at the Threshold of III Millennium” Novosibirsk – Moscow, 1999, p. 210-225
2. Dr. Erickson, “The Artistry of Milton H. Erickson, M.D.” video tape 1979
3. Ronald Havens, “The Wisdom of Milton H. Erickson”, Irvington Publ., New York, 1985